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Helang Emas
Ini berita tentang group kami, kalau LonelyladY nak tahu.


The History of Malaysia - Singapore Map.

The Famous Duo

Some time ago, our mapping pioneer Aprivate decided to create his own map of Singapore and Malaysia. He had had enough of Garmin's maps which lacked detail and accuracy. A lover of the outdoor, Aprivate spent a great deal of effort (and money) creating the initial versions of what will be known as the Malxx map.

After many email correspondence, Adil visited Aprivate and a famous partnership was formed. I said famous because the duo were featured in a few news item. Since April 2003, our pioneers had done an excellent job improving the Malxx map. Track contributions were also received from other GPS enthusiasts.

The pioneers had to go through many trials and errors to understand the basics of making Garmin maps. Their experiments include zoom levels, searchable POI types and creating a mapsource preview file. It is a testament of our progress that new mappers can obtain these knowledge through now our tutorials.

The Emergence of More Mappers

The MSN forum, launched in July 2003, brought together GPS enthusiasts from Singapore and Malaysia.

Jerome had been around since the launch of the MSN forum and had collected detailed tracks of eastern Singapore. After meeting Aprivate in April 2004, Jerome began contributing to the Malxx map. At the end of 2004, Jerome published the Singapore map.

In June 2004, Wsian started his Melaka map from Mal33W. In addition to mapping work, Wsian also created useful tools such as PatchIMG.

Jmleng jumped into the fray on November 2004. His EastKL map grew at a tremendous rate. It only take Jmleng one and a half month to cover most of eastern Kuala Lumpur. To date, Jmleng had mapped almost 6,000 of Kuala Lumpur's roads!

Antyong started mapping Subang Jaya at the end of 2004. The mapping bug bit immediately and he had mapped the entire Subang Jaya and USJ area within two weeks.

While Jmleng and Antyong are collecting tracks of Kuala Lumpur, Oleidi tried mapping through calibrated digital maps. He completed a detail map of Petaling Jaya and Subang Jaya in record time. While the result looks impressive at the first glance, the map was later found to be too inaccurate and without proper intersections.

The Intersection Search Excitement

In November 2004, Oleidi of the MSN forum discovered that our GPSr's guidance text can display road names and intersection information. There was an excitement in the old forum.

Wsian's Melaka map was the first to have proper intersections. Other mappers eventually found out the proper way to intersect a junction. This discovery is fundamental in the preparation of routable maps.

The Routing Revolution

On early January 2005, after being down for more than a month, Mapcenter was up again. We were absolutely thrilled to find out that the compiler now supports routing. Adil arranged a meeting for those interested to contribute to the mapping/routing effort.

Adil, Jmleng, Alexlwk, DPBaker and Antyong met at San Francisco Coffee KLCC. Antyong had created a small test routable map and most of the discussions were centred on ways to automate the routing process. We also worked out the division of labour for mapping Kuala Lumpur.

The very next day, Adil stumbled onto a bug in Mapedit which releases the option to generate routing codes (it is still there!). It was as though we had found a diamond mine! The excitement died down when we found out that the routing codes by themselves were not enough to prepare a detailed routable map. Maproute's release made the discovery irrelevant. We started experimenting with maproute.

For the next two weeks, Adil and Antyong worked to create KL routable. Adil did a lot of work connecting the highways and major roads while Antyong fixed and refined the routing. By February, KL Routable v1 was ready for release. While we held back the release to work on a few routing errors, Oleidi released a routable map of USJ on 3 February. KL Routable v1 was released on the next day.

Since January, Jerome and Wsian were also busy experimenting and preparing their maps for routing. The Chinese New Year holidays proved to be a productive period as both Melaka Routable and Singapore Routable were released after the holidays. While both Singapore and KL had to deal with the 1,500 roads limit, Jerome's method of arranging the roads and using ESRI format proved to be better than the 2-map solution for KL Routable v1. KL Routable v2 was release on March 2005 using Jerome's method.

[U]The Birth of a Community[U/]

Since its creation in July 2003, the MSN forum served as a meeting place for Malaysia and Singapore Garmin GPS users. While it was a place to ask questions and check for latest news, it lacked a sense of community. Adil was also having to contend with limitations on file uploads.

The first attempt to move to a new forum was not successful due to teething problems with the php scripts and the general reluctance of existing members to move. This time there was no turning back as everyone embraced wholeheartedly the new forum which was far superior than the MSN forum.

The current forum enable a small community of GPS users to form and grow. With features such as forums, news, downloads and tutorials. Our free routable maps had drawn GPS enthusiasts from all over the world. More importantly, the maps had attracted more Malaysians and Singaporeans into the hobby.

Anthony Yong @2005
Helang Emas
sedang boring ni......

saja cari topik lama......

aduhai......
memory lane......

LonelyladY.....
di manakah dikau kini?

wub.gif
muhammad
ini yg free punya ke berbayar ek
Helang Emas
Mudahkan perjalanan, pastikan keselamatan

Oleh Husain Jahit
husain@hmetro.com.my

Selepas kedudukan berjaya ditentukan, sistem GPS boleh mengira maklumat lain seperti kelajuan, darjah sudut, kesan, jarak perjalanan, jarak ke destinasi, masa matahari terbit dan matahari terbenam serta banyak lagi

SISTEM Kedudukan Global (GPS) ialah satu daripada sistem navigasi berasaskan satelit dibangunkan di atas rangkaian 24 satelit yang diletakkan di dalam orbit angkasa lepas oleh Jabatan Pertahanan Amerika Syarikat (AS).


Pada awalnya GPS itu hanyalah untuk kegunaan aplikasi pertahanan, namun pada 1980-an kerajaan AS mengambil keputusan untuk membolehkan sistem itu diguna pakai bagi kepentingan orang awam juga.

GPS mampu beroperasi 24 jam dalam sebarang keadaan cuaca dan memberi capaian dari mana saja di dunia ini tanpa sebarang yuran langganan atau caj pemasangan untuk menggunakannya.

Satelit GPS mengelilingi bumi dua kali sehari di orbitnya sendiri secara kekal dan memancarkan isyarat maklumat terus ke stesen penerima GPS di bumi.

Maklumat terbabit diambil dan dikira menggunakan kaedah triangle (segitiga) untuk mengira dan menentukan kedudukan sebenar pengguna.

Pada dasarnya, stesen penerima isyarat GPS akan membandingkan masa isyarat itu dipancarkan oleh satelit dengan masa ia diterima. Perbezaan masa itulah yang digunakan untuk menentukan jarak antara stesen penerima GPS dengan satelit.

Setiap satelit dilengkapi jam atomik yang amat tepat sehingga antara berbilion saat. Berdasarkan maklumat itu, alat penerima boleh tahu berapa lama masa diambil untuk isyarat itu sampai ke penerima di bumi.

Ia adalah kerana isyarat bergerak pada kelajuan cahaya, bermakna lebih lama isyarat itu sampai maka lebih jauh jarak satelit itu.

Apabila lebih dari satu satelit digunakan untuk menentukan jarak, penerima sudah boleh menentukan kedudukan pengguna dan dipaparkan di atas unit pemapar peta berelektronik.

Sebuah alat penerima GPS mestilah bertaut atau terikat pada isyarat dari sekurang-kurangnya tiga satelit untuk membolehkan pengiraan menentukan kedudukan dua dimensi (2D – latitude dan longitude) dan seterusnya mengesan pergerakan.

Namun begitu, apabila tautan dapat dilakukan kepada empat atau lebih satelit, alat penerima GPS menentukan kedudukan pengguna dalam tiga dimensi (latitude, longitude dan altitude).

Selepas kedudukan berjaya ditentukan, unit GPS itu sudah boleh mengira maklumat lain seperti kelajuan, darjah sudut, kesan, jarak perjalanan, jarak ke destinasi, masa matahari terbit dan matahari terbenam serta banyak lagi.

Pelbagai alat penerima isyarat GPS berada di pasaran sekarang dan teknologi semakin canggih untuk membolehkan penggunaan yang lebih selesa dan tepat.

Kebanyakan alat penerima hari ini mengamal reka bentuk berbilang saluran selari. Ada alat yang menggunakan sehingga 12 saluran penerima secara selari, sekali gus mempercepatkan proses tautan ke satelit sebaik suisnya dihidupkan. Ia juga menyebabkan tautan yang teguh dalam sebarang keadaan termasuklah kawasan sekeliling yang penuh dengan bangunan tinggi.

Satelit berpusing di dalam orbitnya iaitu kira-kira 19,312 kilometer dari aras bumi pada kelajuan kira-kira 11,265 kilometer sejam.

Kesemua satelit GPS menggunakan tenaga solar, bagaimanapun setiap satu dilengkapi dengan bateri untuk membolehkannya terus beroperasi dalam keadaan berlakunya gerhana matahari. Sebuah roket kecil dipasang untuk membolehkannya terus bergerak di laluan yang betul.

Satelit itu akan memancarkan dua jenis isyarat radio yang ditentukan sebagai isyarat L1 dan L2. GPS untuk kegunaan awam menggunakan L1 pada frekuensi 1,575.42 MHz di atas jaluran frekuensi ultra tinggi (UHF).

Isyarat itu boleh menembusi sesuatu yang kita boleh lihat secara telus termasuk awan, kaca dan plastik, tapi tidak mampu menembusi objek solid seperti bangunan atau gunung.

Banyak manfaat yang boleh diperoleh menggunakan sistem GPS. Ia bukan sekadar sistem navigasi dan penentuan lokasi, malah boleh digunakan untuk sistem pengangkutan, perhutanan, penerokaan mineral termasuk minyak dan gas, pengurusan hidupan liar, pemantauan pergerakan manusia atau barangan dan sebagainya.

Pernah satu ketika di negara ini, syarikat pengeluar teh terkemuka menaja ala transponder atau alat penerima isyarat satelit yang dipasang pada leher gajah untuk mengesan pergerakannya ketika proses pemindahan ke lokasi baru.

Pernah satu ketika diberitakan, Applied Digital Solutions, syarikat berpangkalan di Florida berjaya menjalankan ujian penanaman cip peranti lokasi peribadi (PLD) di bawah kulit manusia.

Kebiasaannya teknologi GPS hanya digunakan pada peranti luaran seperti sistem keselamatan kereta, pembantu peribadi digital (PDA), telefon, gelang tangan, dan sebagainya, tapi kini berjaya dipasang pada badan manusia.

Ia membuktikan satu lagi inovasi daripada teknologi sistem kedudukan global (GPS) berjaya dihasilkan.

Sesebuah PLD berupaya menyokong pelbagai aplikasi termasuk mengesan anak yang hilang atau mangsa penculikan.

Sekeping cip prototaip PLD bersaiz 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 inci, lengkap dengan alat penerima tanpa wayar, alat pemancar dan antena.

Walaupun menggunakan teknologi satelit untuk mengesan lokasi, namun ia masih perlu dihubungkan ke rangkaian telefon mudah alih untuk menghantar maklumat kepada pihak lain.

Syarikat terbabit dijangka mengecilkan saiznya sehingga 1/10 dari saiz asalnya untuk kegunaan sebenar.

Sektor lain begitu juga seperti pengangkutan darat, laut dan udara. Sistem GPS adalah teknologi paling kritikal yang mesti ada pada pengangkutan ini.

Jika dulu, nelayan turun ke laut berpandukan kedudukan bintang di langit, namun sekarang ini kebanyakan bot-bot nelayan dilengkapi alat GPS ini bagi menentukan hala tuju serta berguna untuk mencari lubuk-lubuk ikan.

Begitu juga dengan kapal-kapal besar yang bergerak di lautan luas, hanya GPS sebagai panduan ke destinasi tujuan.

Jenayah kecurian kenderaan perniagaan terutama treler pengangkut akhir-akhir ini diberitakan sering menjadi sasaran perompak kerana kemungkinan barangan berharga yang diangkut.

Sekiranya semua kenderaan terbabit dilengkapi sistem GPS, operasi mengesan amat mudah dijalankan. Kecualilah perompak yang lebih arif dengan sistem GPS, lalu menyorokkannya di dalam bangunan konkrit yang tidak memungkinkan isyarat satelit melepasinya.

Tidak hairan juga jika sebelum ini, semua teksi KLIA mempunyai satu alat tertonjol diletakkan di bumbungnya. Itu adalah transponder atau penerima isyarat satelit untuk penentuan kedudukan berasaskan GPS.

Tapi hairan juga kerana sekarang semua itu tidak kelihatan lagi. Mungkin ia dianggap tidak penting sedangkan ia sebaliknya. Amat penting untuk penentuan kedudukan global sekiranya berlaku jenayah dan boleh membantu pemandu mencari haluan destinasi penumpang.

Inisiatif Tahun Melawat Malaysia menjadikan teksi KLIA penting kepada pelancong. Keselamatan pelancong mesti dijaga dan ketibaan mereka mestilah dialu-alukan tanpa prejudis. Barulah industri pelancongan boleh berkembang apabila keselamatan mereka terjamin.

Namun tidak ada satu pun teksi awam dilihat menggunakan aplikasi ini. Mungkin disebabkan itu juga mereka dengan mudah menolak penumpang dengan alasan tidak tahu jalan dan sebagainya.

Jika ke negara jiran, Singapura, semua teksi mereka dilengkapi sistem GPS yang lengkap dengan aplikasi pe######an. Gabungan GPS dan aplikasi pe######an akan memudahkan haluan ke destinasi dan tiada alasan lagi ‘tidak tahu jalan’.

Kegunaannya juga ditambah nilai dengan beberapa aplikasi lain termasuk pengumuman secara langsung mengenai keadaan jalan, cuaca dan sebagainya. Pernah berlaku pada penulis, sistem itu memaparkan amaran secara ‘pop-up’ kepada pemandu supaya tidak mengambil jalan seperti yang disebutkan kerana berlaku kemalangan dahsyat hingga mengakibatkan kesesakan teruk.

Terdapat juga beberapa syarikat yang menawarkan teknologi GPS ini sebagai aplikasi keselamatan untuk kenderaan awam. Kebanyakannya digabungkan dengan rangkaian telekomunikasi mudah alih yang mana kenderaan yang dilarikan secara automatik menghubungi telefon bimbit pemilik.

Apabila pemilik membuat laporan kepada penyedia perkhidmatan GPS itu, ia akan dikesan dan terus menghubungi pihak polis untuk ke lokasi kenderaan.

Kebanyakan kenderaan mewah kini dipasang dengan sistem GPS yang lengkap dengan skrin. Diberitakan juga, Toyota akan memasang sistem yang sama pada semua keluaran model barunya mulai tahun depan.

Pengeluar telefon bimbit juga kini semakin inovatif apabila turut mengeluarkan telefon bimbit yang turut dilengkap antena penerima isyarat satelit dan aplikasi pe######an.

Nokia adalah contoh jelas menerusi pengenalan Nokia N95 dan Nokia Navigator 6110. Ia menggabungkan beberapa aplikasi seperti Gate5, Smart2go dan Asia Maps. Ia boleh membantu kita menuju ke destinasi dengan lancar berpandukan peta dan arahan.

Amat sesuai untuk penggunaan masa kini dan lebih mengkhusus yang bukan sekadar sebagai alat pengesan dan navigasi, malah boleh dikembangkan kepada satu sistem direktori lengkap yang boleh dimanfaatkan semua pengguna.

Helang Emas
Monitoring high-rise building deformation using Global Positioning System


Abstract
Deformation of engineering structures is often measured in order to ensure that the structure is exhibiting a safe deformation behaviour. For example, the deformation of high-rise building can be monitored by using geodetic method such as Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper discusses the monitoring of high-rise building using the GPS methods. The case study is the KOMTAR building, in Penang, Malaysia. Six control points have been established whereby four of them is located on top of the building itself, and the other two is located at the KOMTAR Plaza compounds.. The field measurements have been carried out in two different epochs, October 2000 and February 2001. The GPS observation and deformation data have been processed and analysed by using the SKI TM and GPSAD2000 softwares, respectively. The results showed that there is no movement occurred in the building.

Introduction
Engineering structures (such as dams, bridges, high rise buildings, etc.) are subject to deformation due to factors such as changes of ground water level, tidal phenomena, tectonic phenomena, etc. Cost is more than offset by savings and by improvements in safety both during and after constructions. As a result, the design, execution and analysis of such surveys are a matter of considerable practical importance. Expanded resource development, the trend towards potentially-deformation-sensitivity engineering and construction projects, and growing geosciencetific interest in the study of crustal movement have all combined to increase awareness of the need for a comprehensive integrated approach to the design and analysis of such deformation surveys. Deformation refers to the changes of a deformable body (natural or man-made objects) undergoes in its shapes, dimension and position. Therefore it is important to measure this movements for the purpose of safety assessment and as well as preventing any disaster in the future.

Deformation measurement techniques generally can be divided into geotechnical, structural and geodetic methods (Teskey and Poster, 1988). The geodetic methods (highly understood by land surveyors) that can be used are Global Positioning System (GPS), close range photogrammetry, total station (terrestrial survey), very long baseline interferometry and satellite laser ranging. The survey methods can be further subdivided into the survey network method and direct measurement methods. In geodetic method there are two types of geodetic networks, namely the reference (absolute) and relative network (Chrzanowski et. al., 1986).

The selection of most appropriate technique or combination of techniques for any particular application will depend upon cost, the accuracy required, and the scale of the survey involves. Therefore several aspects related to the optimal design of the networks, measurement and analysis techniques suited to the monitoring surveys have to be considered. The design of monitoring scheme should satisfy not only the best geometrical strength of the network but should primarily fulfill the needs of subsequent physical interpretation of the monitoring results. Selection of monitoring techniques depends heavily on the type, the magnitude and the rate of the deformation. Therefore, the proposed measuring scheme should be based on the best possible combination of all available measuring instrumentation. A common feature for both geodetic and satellite methods in monitoring scheme involves the following three stages:

-The development of a network configuration,

- The execution process that runs a designed network into reality which deals with both the documentation of the proposed network stations and the actual field measurement techniques, and

- The network analysis that deals with the processing and analysis of the collected geodetic data.

GPS Background and Structural High Rise Building
GPS is satellite based positioning system, which has been developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) for real time navigation since the end of the 70’s. It has made a strong impact on the geodetic world. The main goal of the GPS is to provide worldwide, all weather, continuous radio navigation support to users to determine position, velocity and time throughout the world. It consists of three segments: the space, control and user segment. The GPS can be used for absolute and relative geodetic point positioning. Its primary task is to measure distances between 24 satellites in known orbits about 20,000 km above the earth and provide the user with the information of determining user’s position, expressed in the geocentric 3D coordinate system (WGS84).

GPS techniques have several advantages as a monitoring tool. The surprisingly high accuracies of relative GPS measurements are finding an application in monitoring surveys in areas where stations require intervisibility and weather conditions. Currently, with the deployment of the full satellite constellation, continuous and automated monitoring using GPS will become increasingly practical and cost-effective. Thus, the potentials of GPS as a super positioning tools brought a fresh air to the field of monitoring surveys, especially in areas where quick results could save lives and property. In principle, the monitoring of high-rise building using GPS can be performed episodically (epoch intervals) or continuously. Current GPS accuracy estimates range from 1–2 ppm for regional baseline vectors determined using commercial production software (DeLoach, 1989).

High-rise building is defines as a multistory building tall enough to require the use of a system of mechanical vertical transportation such as elevators. Although originally designed for commercial purposes, many high-rise buildings are now planned for multiple uses. They arose in urban areas where increased land prices and great population densities created a demand for buildings that rose vertically rather than spread horizontally, thus occupying less precious land area. The foundation of high-rise buildings must support very heavy gravity loads and they usually consist of concrete piers, piles or caissons that are sunk into the ground. The most important factor in the design of high-rise buildings is the building’s need to withstand the lateral forces imposed by winds and potential and ground movements. Most high-rise buildings have frames made of high strength steel and concrete. Their frames are constructed of columns (vertical-support members) and beams (horizontal-support members). Cross bracing or shear walls may be used to provide structural frame with greater lateral rigidity in order to withstand wind stress. Even more stable frames use closely spaced columns at the building’s perimeter, or they use the bundled-tube system, in which a number of framing tubes are bundled together to form exceptionally rigid columns. Curtain walls enclose high-rise buildings; these are non-load-bearing sheets of glass, masonry, stone or metal that is affixed to the building’s frame through a series of vertical and horizontal members called mullions and muntins.

Helang Emas
Bas ekspres kena pasang GPS

KUALA LUMPUR. – Lembaga Pelesenan Kenderaan Perdagangan (LPKP) akan mewajibkan pemasangan sistem kedudukan global (GPS) pada lebih 4,000 buah bas ekspres di seluruh negara bagi memudahkan pengawasan pemandunya.

Pengerusinya, Datuk Markiman Kobiran berkata, langkah itu dilihat berkesan kerana cara tersebut pernah mengesan seorang pemandu sebuah bas dari Butterworth ke Kuala Lumpur melakukan 117 kesalahan memandu laju.

Kata beliau, sistem GPS yang sudah pun dipasang secara sukarela oleh sesetengah syarikat bas ekspres memperlihatkan kadar kejayaan yang tinggi dari segi pengawasan kelajuan pemandu.

“Ada sebuah syarikat memberitahu saya bahawa mereka mengesan 117 kesalahan melibatkan seorang pemandu syarikat itu yang memandu dari Butterworth ke Kuala Lumpur,” kata Markiman.

Beliau berkata demikian kepada Utusan Malaysia selepas merasmikan Kejohanan Karate Daerah Hulu Langat dekat sini hari ini.

“Melalui GPS, syarikat pengangkutan sendiri akan dapat memantau secara langsung sama ada pemandu mereka memandu mengikut kadar kelajuan yang ditetapkan atau sebaliknya,” katanya.

Ditanya mengenai kos tambahan yang mungkin terpaksa ditanggung oleh syarikat-syarikat bas, Markiman memberi jaminan ia tidak membebankan kerana kos pemasangan satu sistem GPS pada sebuah bas adalah di bawah RM2,000.

Selain itu, beliau berkata, LPKP juga merancang mewajibkan setiap pemandu baru mengikuti kursus bagi mendapatkan sijil pemanduan berhemah sebelum dibenarkan memandu kenderaan pengangkutan awam.

“Kursus ini akan diadakan dengan kerjasama Mara dan dibuat di Institut Kemahiran Mara atau Pusat Giat Mara,” katanya.

Jelas beliau, sijil pemanduan berhemah adalah tambahan kepada lesen memandu pengangkutan awam sedia ada.

“Segala langkah yang kita sedang atur ini bertujuan mendisiplin pemandu bas ekspres agar kadar kemalangan melibatkan pengangkutan awam dapat dikurangkan,” katanya.

joaquinshah
handphone biasa bleh ke ada perisian GPS nih? melalui install software?
Helang Emas
QUOTE(joaquinshah @ May 8 2008, 12:09 PM) *
handphone biasa bleh ke ada perisian GPS nih? melalui install software?


tentang fon biasa ni HE tak pasti ler. ia bergantung pada platform atau os fon tersebut.
macam HE yang guna N73, aplikasi nokia maps memang dah ada selepas update firmware.


setakat ini.....
windows mobile dan symbian versi terbaru, mempunyai pelbagai perisian untuk gps.

terdapat juga aplikasi gps untuk fon yang menggunakan struktur java.
joaquinshah
aku tgh cari GPS utk java punya phone. tau tak program apa?
Helang Emas
QUOTE(joaquinshah @ May 9 2008, 09:19 AM) *
aku tgh cari GPS utk java punya phone. tau tak program apa?


cuba ko check official web sony-ericsson. kebanyakkan program situ memang java base.

cuba juga semak web java.com

Helang Emas


http://www.livecontacts.com

sesiapa yang guna handphone platform symbian 3rd, boleh cuba software ni.
sesuai untuk handphone yang ada built-in gps receiver.

pudin_360
QUOTE(kanbin @ Jul 27 2004, 08:18 AM) *
ape yg best sgt dgn Alat GPS nieh..??
skada maps tu jer ker..??
sori ler soklan bodo yg aku tanye
skada nk tau jer..!!


GPS blh route pi mana2...hehe
Aku prefer guna GarminMXT & Nokia Maps klu utk symbian phone

Klu PPC, aku guna GMXT, Mapking, I-GO & Smart2GO

GPSR - Holux M-100. Blh dpt dlm rm200 je...
Helang Emas
sesiapa yang bercadang nak beli gps, boleh ler buat pilihan melalui guide ni...

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